Matt’s analysis of reforms as short-term signals is compelling. But the other side to this story, of course, is that there is a perverse incentive among development partner staff to demonstrate successful engagements with client governments that deliver something that looks like successful reform (and perverse incentives for implementing agents to deliver what terms of reference require of them, irrespective of whether they comprise short-term signals alone or something more than that). Short-term signals, of course, look something like successful reform ... over the short-term at least. Which is often just enough time for an ambitious and apparently successful development official to move on and ascend further up the slippery pole (and more than enough time for consultants to be paid!). By way of contrast, taking time to properly identify problems, underlying causes and the appropriate change agents at each of the relevant locations required and finding contextually appropriate solutions probably takes more time and requires more (apparent) risk than a typical development partner organisation (and individuals therein) is prepared to take. Moreover, the ‘development industry’ thrives on paradigms (structural adjustment, PRSPs, governance, PFM, etc.). Such an approach also requires a deeper skill set within agencies ... as well as among practitioners. Whilst I agree with Matt’s analysis, perhaps the task of reforming ‘ourselves’ to be capable of delivering pegs of the appropriate size and shape for the holes that need filling is as daunting as properly identifying the holes to be filled and crafting the pegs.